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Pcre Class Reference

#include <pcre++.h>

List of all members.

Public Methods

 Pcre ()
 Pcre (const string &expression)
 Pcre (const string &expression, const string &flags)
 Pcre (const Pcre &P)
const Pcre & operator= (const string &expression)
const Pcre & operator= (const Pcre &P)
 ~Pcre ()
bool search (const string &stuff)
bool search (const string &stuff, int OffSet)
Arrayget_sub_strings ()
string get_match (int pos)
int get_match_start (int pos)
int get_match_end (int pos)
int get_match_start ()
int get_match_end ()
size_t get_match_length (int pos)
bool matched ()
int matches ()
Array split (const string &piece)
Array split (const string &piece, int limit)
Array split (const string &piece, int limit, int start_offset)
Array split (const string &piece, int limit, int start_offset, int end_offset)
Array split (const string &piece, vector< int > positions)
string replace (const string &piece, const string &with)

Public Attributes

bool did_match
int num_matches


Detailed Description

The Pcre class is a wrapper around the PCRE library.

The library "pcre++" defines a class named "Pcre" which you can use to search in strings using reular expressions as well as getting matched sub strings. It does currently not support all features, which the underlying PCRE library provides, but the most important stuff is implemented.

Please study this example code to learn how to use this class:

/*
 *
 *  This file  is part of the PCRE++ Class Library.
 *
 *  By  accessing  this software,  PCRE++, you  are  duly informed
 *  of and agree to be  bound  by the  conditions  described below
 *  in this notice:
 *
 *  This software product,  PCRE++,  is developed by Thomas Linden
 *  and  copyrighted (C) 2002  by  Thomas Linden,  with all rights 
 *  reserved.
 *
 *  There  is no charge for PCRE++ software.  You can redistribute
 *  it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU  Lesser General
 *  Public License, which is incorporated by reference herein.
 *
 *  PCRE++ is distributed WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY, IMPLIED OR EXPRESS,
 *  OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE or that
 *  the use of it will not infringe on any third party's intellec-
 *  tual property rights.
 *
 *  You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
 *  License along with PCRE++.  Copies can also be obtained from:
 *
 *    http://www.gnu.org/licenses/lgpl.txt
 *
 *  or by writing to:
 *
 *  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
 *  59 Temple Place, Suite 330
 *  Boston, MA 02111-1307
 *  USA
 *
 *  Or contact:
 *
 *   "Thomas Linden" <tom@daemon.de>
 *
 *
 */


/* you need to include the pcre++ header file */
#include <pcre++.h>
#include <iostream>

void regex() {
    /*
     * define a string with a regular expression
     */
    string expression = "([a-z]*) ([0-9]+)";

    /*
     * this is the string in which we want to search
     */
    string stuff = "hallo 11 robert";

    cout << "  searching in \"" << stuff << "\" for regex \"" << expression << "\":" << endl;

    /*
     * Create a new Pcre object, search case-insensitive ("i")
     */
    Pcre reg(expression, "i");
    
    /*
     * see if the expression matched
     */
    if(reg.search(stuff) == true) {

      /*
       * see if the expression generated any substrings
       */
      if(reg.num_matches >= 1) {

        /*
         * print out the number of substrings
         */
        cout << "  generated " << reg.matches() << " substrings:" << endl;
          
        /*
         * iterate over the matched sub strings
         */
        for(int pos=0; pos < reg.matches(); pos++) {
          /* print out each substring */
          cout << "  substring " << pos << ": " << reg.get_match(pos);
          /* print out the start/end offset of the current substring within the searched string(stuff) */
          cout << " (start: " << reg.get_match_start(pos) << ", end: " << reg.get_match_end(pos) << ")" << endl;
        }
      }
      else {
        /*
         * we had a match, but it generated no substrings, for whatever reason
         */
        cout << "   it matched, but there where no substrings." << endl;
      }
    }
    else {
      /*
       * no match at all
       */
      cout << "   didn't match." << endl;
    }
}



void replace() {
    /*
     * Sample of replace() usage
     */
    string orig = "Hans ist 22 Jahre alt. Er ist 8 Jahre šlter als Fred.";
    cout << "   orig: " << orig << endl;

    /*
     * define a regex for digits (character class)
     */
    Pcre p(" [0-9]+ ");

    /*
     * replace the 1st occurence of [0-9]+ with "zweiundzwanzig"
     */
    string n = p.replace(orig, " zweiundzwanzig($1) ");

    /*
     * prints out: "Hans ist zweiundzwanzig Jahre alt. Er ist 8 Jahre šlter als Fred."
     */
    cout << "   new: " << n << endl; 
}


void replace_multi() {
  /*
   * Sample of replace() usage with multiple substrings
   */
  string orig = " 08:23 ";
  cout << "   orig: " << orig << endl;
  
  /*
   * create regex which, if it matches, creates 3 substrings
   */
  Pcre reg(" ([0-9]+)(:)([0-9]+) ", "sig");

  /*
   * remove $2 (":")
   * re-use $1 ("08") and $3 ("23") in the replace string
   */
  string n  = reg.replace(orig, "$1 Stunden und $3 Minuten");

  /*
   * prints the result: "08 Stunden und 23 Minuten"
   */
  cout << "   new:  " << n  << endl;
}


void normalize() {
  /*
   * another sample to check if normalizing using replace() works
   */
  string orig = "Heute   ist ein  schoener  Tag        gell?";
  cout << "   orig: " << orig << endl;

  /*
   * create regex for normalizing whitespace
   */
  Pcre reg("[\\s]+", "gs");

  /*
   * do the normalizing process
   */
  string n = reg.replace(orig, " ");

  /*
   * prints the result, should be: "Heute ist ein schoener Tag , gell?"
   */
  cout << "   new:  " << n  << endl;
}


void split() {
  /*
   * Sample of split() usage
   */
      string sp_orig = "was21willst2387461du3alter!";
      cout << "   orig: " << sp_orig << endl;

      /*
       * define a regex for digits (character class)
       */
      string delimiter = "[0-9]+";

      /*
       * new Pcre object, match globally ("g" flag)
       */
      Pcre S(delimiter, "g");

      /*
       * split "was21willst2387461du3alter!" by digits
       */
      Array splitted = S.split(sp_orig);
      
      /*
       * iterate over the resulting list
       */
      cout << "   splitted: ";
      for(ArrayIterator A = splitted.begin(); A != splitted.end(); ++A)
        cout << *A << " ";
      cout << endl;
}


void ex() {
  /*
   * Pcre::exception Test
   */
  
  /*
   * this will generate only one substring, "This"
   */
  Pcre ex("([a-z]+)", "i");
  if(ex.search("This is a test.")) {
    cout << "  trying to access a non-existing substring:" << endl;
    cout << "  substring 2: " << ex.get_match(1) << endl; 
  }
}


void mycopy() {
  /*
   * Sample use of copy contsructor and operator=
   */
    cout << "  initializing reg1(([a-z]+?)" << endl;
    Pcre reg1("^([a-z]+?)");

    /*
     * create an empty Pcre objects
     */
    Pcre reg2;
    
    /*
     * copy reg1 to reg2 (operator=)
     */
    cout << "  copying reg1 to new Pcre object reg2" << endl;
    reg2 = reg1;

    /*
     * using the copy constructor to initialize the 3rd object
     */
    cout << "  creating a new Pcre object reg3 from reg2" << endl;
    Pcre reg3(reg2);

    /*
     * doing regular stuff on reg3
     */
    if(reg3.search("anton"))
      cout << "  string 'anton' matched using reg3 object" << endl;
}


int main() {
  /* 
   * the Pcre class throws errors via exceptions
   */
  try {
    cout << endl << "SEARCH() sample:" << endl;
    regex();

    cout << endl << "REPLACE() sample:" << endl;
    replace();

    cout << endl << "Multiple REPLACE() sample:" << endl;
    replace_multi();

    cout << endl << "Normalizing REPLACE() sample:" << endl;
    normalize();

    cout << endl << "SPLIT() sample:" << endl;
    split();

    cout << endl << "COPY+Operator sample:" << endl;
    mycopy();

    cout << endl << "Pcre::exception test:" << endl;
    ex();

    exit(0);
  }
  catch (Pcre::exception &E) {
    /*
     * the Pcre class has thrown an exception
     */
    cerr << "Pcre++ error: " << E.what() << endl;
    exit(-1);
  }
  exit(0);
}
  

Compile your programs which use the prce++ class using the following LDFLAGS:

   g++ yourcode.o .. -L/path/to/the/lib -lpcrepp -o yourprogram

If you want to learn more about regular expressions which can be used with pcre++, then please read the following documentation: perlre - Perl regular expressions

The pcre library itself does also contain some usefull documentation, which maybe interesting for you: PCRE manual page

Definition at line 91 of file pcre++.h.


Constructor & Destructor Documentation

Pcre::Pcre  
 

Empty Constructor. Create a new empty Pcre object. This is the simplest constructor available, you might consider one of the other constructors as a better solution. You need to initialize thie Pcre object, if you use the empty constructor. You can use one of the two available operator= operators to assign it an expression or a Pcre copy.

Returns:
A new empty Pcre object

Definition at line 87 of file pcre++.cc.

Pcre::Pcre const string &    expression
 

Constructor. Compile the given pattern. An Pcre object created this way can be used multiple times to do searches.

Parameters:
string expression  a string, which must be a valid perl regular expression.
Returns:
A new Pcre object, which holds te compiled pattern.
See also:
Pcre(const string& _expression, const string& flags)

Definition at line 50 of file pcre++.cc.

Pcre::Pcre const string &    _expression,
const string &    flags
 

Constructor. Compile the given pattern. An Pcre object created this way can be used multiple times to do searches.

Parameters:
string expression  a string, which must be a valid perl regular expression.
string flags  can be one or more of the following letters:

  • i Search case insensitive.
  • m Match on multiple lines, thus ^ and $ are interpreted as the start and end of the entire string, not of a single line.
  • s A dot in an expression matches newlines too(which is normally not the case).
  • x Whitespace characters will be ignored (except within character classes or if escaped).
  • g Match multiple times. This flags affects only the behavior of the replace(const string& piece, const string& with) method.
Returns:
A new Pcre object, which holds te compiled pattern.
See also:
Pcre(const string& expression)

Definition at line 58 of file pcre++.cc.

Pcre::Pcre const Pcre &    P
 

Copy Constructor Creates a new Pcre object of an existing one.

Parameters:
Pcre P  an existing Pcre object.
Returns:
A new Pcre object, which holds te compiled pattern.
See also:
Pcre(const string& expression) , Pcre(const string& expression, const string& flags)

Definition at line 78 of file pcre++.cc.

References _expression, _flags, case_t, and global_t.

Pcre::~Pcre  
 

Destructor. The desturcor will automatically invoked if the object is no more used. It frees all the memory allocated by pcre++.

Definition at line 100 of file pcre++.cc.

References num_matches.


Member Function Documentation

string Pcre::get_match int    pos
 

Get a substring at a known position. This method throws an out-of-range exception if the given position is invalid.

Parameters:
int pos  the position of the substring to return. Identical to perl's $1..$n.
Returns:
the substring at the given position.
Example:
 string mysub = regex.get_match(1); 
Get the first substring that metched the expression in the "regex" object.

Definition at line 265 of file pcre++.cc.

References ArrayIterator, and num_matches.

Referenced by replace().

int Pcre::get_match_end  
 

Get the end position of the entire match within the searched string. This method returns the character position of the last character of the entire match within the searched string.

Returns:
the integer character position of the last character of the entire match.
Example:
 Pcre regex("([0-9]+)\s([a-z]+)");     // search for the date(makes 2 substrings
 regex.search("The 11th september.");  // do the search on this string
 int pos = regex.get_match_end();      // returns 17, because "11th september", which is
                                           // the entire match, ends at the
                                       // 17th character inside the search string.
See also:
int get_match_start() , int get_match_start(int pos) , int get_match_end(int pos)

Definition at line 282 of file pcre++.cc.

Referenced by replace().

int Pcre::get_match_end int    pos
 

Get the end position of a substring within the searched string. This method returns the character position of the last character of a substring withing the searched string.

Parameters:
int pos  the position of the substring. Identical to perl's $1..$n.
Returns:
the integer character position of the last character of a substring. Positions are starting at 0.
Example:
 Pcre regex("([0-9]+)");               // search for numerical characters
 regex.search("The 11th september.");  // do the search on this string
 string day = regex.get_match(1);      // returns "11"
 int pos = regex.get_match_end(1);     // returns 5, because "11" ends at the
                                       // 5th character inside the search string.
See also:
int get_match_start(int pos) , int get_match_start() , int get_match_end()

Definition at line 301 of file pcre++.cc.

References num_matches.

size_t Pcre::get_match_length int    pos
 

Get the length of a substring at a known position. This method throws an out-of-range exception if the given position is invalid.

Parameters:
int pos  the position of the substring-length to return. Identical to perl's $1..$n.
Returns:
the length substring at the given position.

Definition at line 315 of file pcre++.cc.

References Array, ArrayIterator, and num_matches.

int Pcre::get_match_start  
 

Get the start position of the entire match within the searched string. This method returns the character position of the first character of the entire match within the searched string.

Returns:
the integer character position of the first character of the entire match.
Example:
 Pcre regex("([0-9]+)\s([a-z]+)");     // search for the date(makes 2 substrings
 regex.search("The 11th september.");  // do the search on this string
 int pos = regex.get_match_start();    // returns 4, because "11th september" begins at the
                                       // 4th character inside the search string.
See also:
int get_match_start(int pos) , int get_match_end(int pos) , int get_match_end()

Definition at line 275 of file pcre++.cc.

Referenced by replace().

int Pcre::get_match_start int    pos
 

Get the start position of a substring within the searched string. This method returns the character position of the first character of a substring withing the searched string.

Parameters:
int pos  the position of the substring. Identical to perl's $1..$n.
Returns:
the integer character position of the first character of a substring. Positions are starting at 0.
Example:
 Pcre regex("([0-9]+)");               // search for numerical characters
 regex.search("The 11th september.");  // do the search on this string
 string day = regex.get_match(1);      // returns "11"
 int pos = regex.get_match_start(1);   // returns 4, because "11" begins at the
                                       // 4th character inside the search string.
See also:
int get_match_end(int pos) , int get_match_end() , int get_match_start()

Definition at line 289 of file pcre++.cc.

References num_matches.

Array * Pcre::get_sub_strings  
 

Return a vector of substrings, if any.

Returns:
a pointer to an Array, which may be NULL, if no substrings has been found.
See also:
Array

Definition at line 258 of file pcre++.cc.

References Array.

bool Pcre::matched   [inline]
 

Test if a search was successfull. This method must be invoked after calling search().

Returns:
boolean true if the search was successfull at all, or false if not.

Definition at line 400 of file pcre++.h.

References did_match.

Referenced by replace().

int Pcre::matches   [inline]
 

Get the number of substrings generated by pcre++.

Returns:
the number of substrings generated by pcre++.

Definition at line 405 of file pcre++.h.

References Array, and num_matches.

Referenced by replace().

const Pcre & Pcre::operator= const Pcre &    P
 

Operator =.

Parameters:
const Pcre &P  an Pcre object
Returns:
a new Pcre object
Example:

 Pcre reg1("^[a-z]+?");
 Pcre reg2;
 reg2 = reg1;
 @codeend;

Definition at line 136 of file pcre++.cc.

References _expression, _flags, case_t, did_match, global_t, and num_matches.

const Pcre & Pcre::operator= const string &    expression
 

Operator =.

Parameters:
string expression  a valid regular expression.
Returns:
a new Pcre object.
Example:

 Pcre regex = "(A+?)";
 @codeend;

Definition at line 125 of file pcre++.cc.

string Pcre::replace const string &    piece,
const string &    with
 

Replace parts of a string using regular expressions. This method is the counterpart of the perl s/// operator. It replaces the substrings which matched the given regular expression (given to the constructor) with the supplied string.

Parameters:
string piece  the string in which you want to search and replace.
string with  the string which you want to place on the positions which match the expression (given to the constructor).

Definition at line 436 of file pcre++.cc.

References Array, get_match(), get_match_end(), get_match_start(), matched(), matches(), num_matches, and search().

bool Pcre::search const string &    stuff,
int    OffSet
 

Do a search on the given string beginning at the given offset. This method does the actual search on the given string.

Parameters:
string stuff  the string in which you want to search for something.
int OffSet  the offset where to start the search.
Returns:
boolean true if the regular expression matched. false if not.
See also:
bool search(const string& stuff)

Definition at line 205 of file pcre++.cc.

bool Pcre::search const string &    stuff
 

Do a search on the given string. This method does the actual search on the given string.

Parameters:
string stuff  the string in which you want to search for something.
Returns:
boolean true if the regular expression matched. false if not.
See also:
bool search(const string& stuff, int OffSet)

Definition at line 209 of file pcre++.cc.

References Array, did_match, and num_matches.

Referenced by replace().

Array Pcre::split const string &    piece,
vector< int >    positions
 

split a string into pieces This method will split the given string into a vector of strings using the compiled expression (given to the constructor).

Parameters:
string piece  The string you want to split into it's parts.
vector<int> positions  a list of positions, which the returned Array should contain.
Returns:
an Array of strings
See also:
Array split(const string& piece) , Array split(const string& piece, int limit) , Array split(const string& piece, int limit, int start_offset) , Array split(const string& piece, int limit, int start_offset) , Array

Definition at line 425 of file pcre++.cc.

References Array.

Array Pcre::split const string &    piece,
int    limit,
int    start_offset,
int    end_offset
 

split a string into pieces This method will split the given string into a vector of strings using the compiled expression (given to the constructor).

Parameters:
string piece  The string you want to split into it's parts.
int limit  the maximum number of elements you want to get back from split().
int start_offset  at which substring the returned Array should start.
int end_offset  at which substring the returned Array should end.
Returns:
an Array of strings
See also:
Array split(const string& piece) , Array split(const string& piece, int limit) , Array split(const string& piece, int limit, int start_offset) , Array split(const string& piece, vector<int> positions) , Array

Definition at line 421 of file pcre++.cc.

References Array.

Array Pcre::split const string &    piece,
int    limit,
int    start_offset
 

split a string into pieces This method will split the given string into a vector of strings using the compiled expression (given to the constructor).

Parameters:
string piece  The string you want to split into it's parts.
int limit  the maximum number of elements you want to get back from split().
int start_offset  at which substring the returned Array should start.
Returns:
an Array of strings
See also:
Array , Array split(const string& piece) , Array split(const string& piece, int limit) , Array split(const string& piece, int limit, int start_offset, int end_offset) , Array split(const string& piece, vector<int> positions)

Definition at line 417 of file pcre++.cc.

References Array.

Array Pcre::split const string &    piece,
int    limit
 

split a string into pieces This method will split the given string into a vector of strings using the compiled expression (given to the constructor).

Parameters:
string piece  The string you want to split into it's parts.
int limit  the maximum number of elements you want to get back from split().
Returns:
an Array of strings
See also:
Array , Array split(const string& piece) , Array split(const string& piece, int limit, int start_offset) , Array split(const string& piece, int limit, int start_offset, int end_offset) , Array split(const string& piece, vector<int> positions)

Definition at line 413 of file pcre++.cc.

References Array.

Array Pcre::split const string &    piece
 

split a string into pieces This method will split the given string into a vector of strings using the compiled expression (given to the constructor).

Parameters:
string piece  The string you want to split into it's parts.
Returns:
an Array of strings
See also:
Array , Array split(const string& piece, int limit) , Array split(const string& piece, int limit, int start_offset) , Array split(const string& piece, int limit, int start_offset, int end_offset) , Array split(const string& piece, vector<int> positions)

Definition at line 409 of file pcre++.cc.

References Array.


Member Data Documentation

bool Pcre::did_match
 

Definition at line 162 of file pcre++.h.

Referenced by matched(), operator=(), and search().

int Pcre::num_matches
 

true if the expression produced a match

Definition at line 163 of file pcre++.h.

Referenced by get_match(), get_match_end(), get_match_length(), get_match_start(), matches(), operator=(), replace(), search(), and ~Pcre().


The documentation for this class was generated from the following files:
Generated on Tue Jul 16 22:14:39 2002 for PCRE++ by doxygen1.2.13.1 written by Dimitri van Heesch, © 1997-2001